Category :Arduino Projects


Arduino lesson – Photoresistor


  1. Introduction
  2. Preparations

  3. About Photoresistor
  4. Connection
  5. Upload Sketch
  6. Program Running Result
  7. The Expansion Example


In this lesson, we will show how to use the photoresistor with an Osoyoo UNO, we will monitor the output of a photoresistor, allow the Arduino to know how light or dark it is. When the light falls below a certain level, the Arduino turns on an LED.



  • Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
  • Breadboard x 1
  • Photoresistor x 1
  • 10k ohm resistor x 1
  • 200 ohm resistor x 8
  • LED x 8
  • M/M jumpers
  • USB Cable x 1
  • PC x 1


Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

About Photoresistor

Photocells are sensors that allow you to detect light. They are small, inexpensive, low-power, easy to use and don’t wear out. For that reason they often appear in toys, gadgets and appliances. They are often referred to as CdS cells (they are made of Cadmium-Sulfide), light-dependent resistors (LDR), and photoresistors.

Photocells are basically a resistor that changes its resistive value (in ohms Ω) depending on how much light is shining onto the squiggly face.When it is dark, the resistance of a photoresistor may be as high as a few MΩ. When it is light, however, the resistance of a photoresistor may be as low as a few hundred ohms. They are very low cost, easy to get in many sizes and specifications, but are very innacurate. Each photocell sensor will act a little differently than the other, even if they are from the same batch. The variations can be really large, 50% or higher! For this reason, they shouldn’t be used to try to determine precise light levels in lux or millicandela. Instead, you can expect to only be able to determine basic light changes.

This graph indicates approximately the resistance of the sensor at different light levels:


You connect the components as shown in the diagram below. Connect the LED to pin 9 of the Arduino. The 200 ohm resistor is current limiting resistor. One lead of the photo resistor is connected to 5V, the other to one lead of the 10k ohm resistor. The other lead of the 10k ohm resistor is connected to ground. This forms a voltage divider, whose output is connected to pin A0 of the Arduino.

As the light impinging on the photoresistor gets stronger, the resistance decreases, and the voltage output of the divider increase. The reverse happens, when the impinging light gets weaker.

Upload Sketch

After above operations are completed, connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labelled PWR) should go on.

Code Program

You can download the sketch from this link or copy below code to your Arduino IDE window:

int photocellPin = A0; // select the input pin for the photoresistor int ledPin = 9; // select the pin for the LED  int val = 0; // variable to store the value coming from the sensor  void setup() {Serial.begin(9600); //Set the baudrate to 9600,make sure it's same as your software settings pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // declare the ledPin as an OUTPUT  pinMode(photocellPin, INPUT); // declare the ledPin as an OUTPUT  } void loop() { val = analogRead(photocellPin); // read the value from the sensor Serial.println(val);      //The serial will print the light value if(val<=512) // the point at which the state of LEDs change  { digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH); // set LED on } else { digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); //set LED off } }

In this experiment, we will connect a photoresistor to an Arduino analog input and read the value with the analogRead() function. Depending on the value the Arduino reads, the program will then set pin 9 HIGH or LOW to turn on or turn off the LED night lights. The threshold value is 512. When the analog value read is less than 512, the Arduino will turn the LEDs on. When the analog value it reads is more than 512, the Arduino will turn the LEDs off.

Compile and upload

Open the Arduino IDE and select corresponding board type and port type for your Arduino board.

After compile this sketch, simply click the “Upload” button in the environment. Wait a few seconds – you should see the RX and TX leds on the board flashing. If the upload is successful, the message “Done uploading.” will appear in the status bar.

Running Result

If the room is lighted, the LEDs should not light. Try getting them to turn on it by covering the photoresistor with your hand. Remove your hand and observe that they turn off again.

In the same time, open the Serial Monitor and you will get the output data as below :


When you are using the Serial Monitor, please make sure the baudrate setting is same as your sketch definition.

Extended experiment

In this experiment, we will use eight LEDs to indicate light intensity. The higher the light intensity is, the more the LED is lit. When the light intensity is high enough, all the LEDs will be lit. When there is no light, all the LEDs will go out.

Step 1: Build the circuit

Step 2: Program

You can get the sketch here,or copy below code to your Arduino IDE windows:

const int NbrLEDs = 8; const int ledPins[] = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}; const int photocellPin = A0; int sensorValue = 0; // value read from the sensor int ledLevel = 0; // sensor value converted into LED 'bars' void setup() { for (int led = 0; led < NbrLEDs; led++) { pinMode(ledPins[led], OUTPUT);// make all the LED pins outputs } } void loop() { sensorValue = analogRead(photocellPin); ledLevel = map(sensorValue, 300, 1023, 0, NbrLEDs); // map to the number of LEDs for (int led = 0; led < NbrLEDs; led++) { if (led < ledLevel ) { digitalWrite(ledPins[led], HIGH); // turn on pins less than the level } else { digitalWrite(ledPins[led],LOW); // turn off pins higher than // the level } } } 

Step 3: Compile the code

Step 4: Upload the sketch to the Osoyoo Uno board

Now, if you shine the photoresistor with a certain light intensity, you will see several LEDs light up. If you increase the light intensity, you will see more LEDs light up. When you place it in dark environment, all the LEDs will go out.


Arduino lesson – 2-Channel Relay Module


  1. Introduction
  2. Preparations

  3. About the 2-Channel Relay Module

  4. Example
  5. Connection
  6. Upload Sketch
  7. Program Running Result


A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.

In this lesson, we will show you how the 2-Channel Relay Module works and how to use it with the Osoyoo Uno board to control high voltage devices.



  • Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
  • 2-Channel Relay Module x 1
  • Breadboard x 1
  • Jumpers
  • USB Cable x 1
  • PC x 1


  • Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

About 2-Channel Relay Module


This is a 5V 2-Channel Relay Module board, Be able to control various appliances, and other equipment with large current. It can be controlled directly by Microcontroller (Raspberry Pi, Arduino, 8051, AVR, PIC, DSP, ARM, ARM, MSP430, TTL logic). Very useful project for application like Micro-Controller based projects, Remote controller, Lamp on Off, and any circuits which required isolated high current and high voltage switching by applying any TTL or CMOS level voltage.


  • High current relay, AC250V 10A, DC30V 10A
  • 2 LEDs to indicate when relays are on
  • Works with logic level signals from 3.3V or 5V devices
  • Opto isolation circuitry
  • PCB size: 50×45 mm

Pins Out


It has a 1×4 (2.54mm pitch) pin header for connecting power (5V and 0V), and for controlling the 2 relays. The pins are marked on the PCB:

  • GND – Connect 0V to this pin.
  • IN1 – Controls relay 1, active Low! Relay will turn on when this input goes below about 2.0V
  • IN2 – Controls relay 2, active Low! Relay will turn on when this input goes below about 2.0V
  • VCC – Connect 5V to this pin. Is used to power the opto couplers

There is a second 1×3 (2.54mm pitch) pin header for supplying the “relay side” of the board with 5V. At delivery, a jumper is present on this header selecting the 5V signal from the 1×4 pin header to power the relays. For default operation, don’t change this jumper!

The pins of the 1×3 pin header are marked on the PCB:

  • JD-VCC – This is the 5V required for the relays. At delivery, a jumper is present on this and the adjacent (VCC) pin.
  • VCC – This is the 5V VCC supplied on the 1×4 pin connector
  • GND – Connected to 0V pin of 1×4 pin header

If opto isolation is required, an isolated 5V supply should be used. For normal operation, a jumper bewtween pins 1 and 2 selects the 5V signal from the 1×4 pin header. This means both the “input side”, and “relay side” use the same 5V supply, and there is no opto-isolation.


The 2 channel relay module could be considered like a series switches: 2 normally Open (NO), 2 normally closed (NC) and 2 common Pins (COM).

  • COM- Common pin
  • NC- Normally Closed, in which case NC is connected with COM when INT1 is set low and disconnected when INT1 is high
  • NO- Normally Open, in which case NO is disconnected with COM1 when INT1 is set low and connected when INT1 is high


How relay works?

The working of a relay can be better understood by explaining the following diagram given below.

There are 5 parts in every relay:

1. Electromagnet – It consists of an iron core wounded by coil of wires. When electricity is passed through, it becomes magnetic. Therefore, it is called electromagnet.

2. Armature – The movable magnetic strip is known as armature. When current flows through them, the coil is it energized thus producing a magnetic field which is used to make or break the normally open (N/O) or normally close (N/C) points. And the armature can be moved with direct current (DC) as well as alternating current (AC).

3. Spring – When no currents flow through the coil on the electromagnet, the spring pulls the armature away so the circuit cannot be completed.

4. Set of electrical contacts – There are two contact points:

.Normally open – connected when the relay is activated, and disconnected when it is inactive.

.Normally close – not connected when the relay is activated, and connected when it is inactive.

5. Molded frame – Relays are covered with plastic for protection.


The diagram shows an inner section diagram of a relay. An iron core is surrounded by a control coil. As shown, the power source is given to the electromagnet through a control switch and through contacts to the load. When current starts flowing through the control coil, the electromagnet starts energizing and thus intensifies the magnetic field. Thus the upper contact arm starts to be attracted to the lower fixed arm and thus closes the contacts causing a short circuit for the power to the load. On the other hand, if the relay was already de-energized when the contacts were closed, then the contact move oppositely and make an open circuit.

As soon as the coil current is off, the movable armature will be returned by a force back to its initial position. This force will be almost equal to half the strength of the magnetic force. This force is mainly provided by two factors. They are the spring and also gravity.

Relays are mainly made for two basic operations. One is low voltage application and the other is high voltage. For low voltage applications, more preference will be given to reduce the noise of the whole circuit. For high voltage applications, they are mainly designed to reduce a phenomenon called arcing.

High Voltage Warning

Before we continue with this lesson, I will warn you here that we will use High Voltage which if incorrectly or improperly used could result in serious injuries or death. So be very caution of what you are doing.


Using the Arduino to Control a 2 Channel Relay

In this example, when a low level is supplied to signal terminal of the 2-channel relay, the LED on the relay will light up. Otherwise, it will turn off. If a periodic high and low level is supplied to the signal terminal, you can see the LED will cycle between on and off.


Build the circuit as below digram:

Code Program

After above operations are completed, connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labelled PWR) should go on.Open the Arduino IDE and choose corresponding board type and port type for you project. Then load up the following sketch onto your Arduino.

//the relays connect to int IN1 = 2; int IN2 = 3; #define ON 0 #define OFF 1 void setup() { relay_init();//initialize the relay } void loop() { relay_SetStatus(ON, OFF);//turn on RELAY_1 delay(2000);//delay 2s relay_SetStatus(OFF, ON);//turn on RELAY_2 delay(2000);//delay 2s } void relay_init(void)//initialize the relay { //set all the relays OUTPUT pinMode(IN1, OUTPUT); pinMode(IN2, OUTPUT); relay_SetStatus(OFF, OFF); //turn off all the relay } //set the status of relays void relay_SetStatus( unsigned char status_1, unsigned char status_2) { digitalWrite(IN1, status_1); digitalWrite(IN2, status_2); } 

Running Result

A few seconds after the upload finishes, you should see the LED cycle between on and off.


Arduino lesson – Digital Touch Sensor Module


We need Switch to control electronics or electrical appliances or some thing, Some time electrical switches will give a shock when we use electrical switches with wet hand and then touch to control electrical or electronic load is much interactive than ordinary switches, may be some projects needs touch switch.

In this lesson, we will show what is Digital Touch Sensor Module and how to use it with the Arduino board.


  • Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
  • Breadboard x 1
  • Digital Touch Sensor Module x 1
  • Jumpers
  • USB Cable x 1
  • PC x 1


Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

About Digital Touch Sensor Module


  • The module is based on a touch-sensing IC (TTP223B) capacitive touch switch module.
  • In the normal state, the module output low, low power consumption; When a finger touches the corresponding position, the module output high, if not touched for 12 seconds, switch to low-power mode
  • Jog type : the initial state is low , high touch , do not touch is low ( similar touch of a button feature )
  • Module can be installed in such as surface plastic, glass of non-metallic materials. In addition to the thin paper ( non-metallic ) covering the surface of the module , as long as the correct location of the touch , you can make hidden in the walls, desktops and other parts of buttons


  • Low power consumption
  • Power supply for 2 ~ 5.5V DC
  • Operating Current(Vcc=3V):1.5 – 3.0μA
  • Operating Current(VDD=3V):3.5 – 7.0μA
  • Can replace the traditional touch of a button
  • Four M2 screws positioning holes for easy installation
  • Response Time: Low power mode:220ms;Quick mode :60ms
  • Size: 8*6*0.5 cm


-Control Interface : A total of three pins (GND, VCC, SIG), GND to ground , VCC is the power supply , SIG digital signal output pin ;
-Power Indicator : Green LED, power on the right that is shiny ;
-Touch area : Similar to a fingerprint icon inside the area , you can touch the trigger finger .
-Positioning holes : 4 M2 screws positioning hole diameter is 2.2mm, the positioning of the module is easy to install , to achieve inter- module combination ;


TTP223 is 1 Key Touch pad detector IC, and it is suitable to detect capacitive element variations. It consumes very low power and the operating voltage is only between 2.0V~5.5V. The response time max about 60mS at fast mode, 220mS at low power mode @VDD=3V. Sensitivity can adjust by the capacitance(0~50pF) outside.


  • Water proofed electric products
  • Button key replacement
  • Consumer products


Connect the Touch Sensor to Your Arduino

Connect Vcc pin of Sensor breakout board to Arduino’s +5V pin and GND to GND. Connect Signal (SIG) pin to Arduino Digital pin D2.

Copy, Paste and Upload the Arduino Sketch

The sketch below provides an output to your serial monitor indicating whether or not the sensor is pressed.


After the uploader , if use finger or metal object touch the metal surface of the transducer , the red LED lights on the UNO will light. Open the Serial Monitor at baudrate 9600, and you will see something as below: