# Introduction

At sometime or another you may run out of pins on your Arduino board and need to extend it with shift registers. This example is based on the 74HC595. The datasheet refers to the 74HC595 as an “8-bit serial-in, serial or parallel-out shift register with output latches; 3-state.” In other words, you can use it to control 8 outputs at a time while only taking up a few pins on your microcontroller. You can link multiple registers together to extend your output even more.

In this lesson, we will show how to use the 74HC595 8-bit shift register with Osoyoo Uno boards.

# Preparations

## Hardware

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• 74HC595 x 1
• LED x 8
• One-digit 7 Segment LED Display x 1
• 200 ohm Resistor x 8
• Breadboard x 1
• Jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## Software

• Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

Before I go through the circuit, let’s have a quick look at what the chip is doing, so that we can understand what the code has to do.

The first thing that should be cleared up is what “bits” are, for those of you who aren’t familiar with binary. When we refer to a “bit”, we are referring to one of the numbers that make up the binary value. Unlike normal numbers though, we typically consider the first bit to be the right most one. So, if we take the binary value 10100010, the first bit is actually 0, and the eighth bit is 1. It should also be noted, in case it wasn’t implied, each bit can only be 0 or 1.

The chip contains eight pins that we can use for output, each of which is associated with a bit in the register. In the case of the 74HC595 IC, we refer to these as QA through to QH. In order to write to these outputs via the Arduino, we have to send a binary value to the shift register, and from that number the shift register can figure out which outputs to use. For example, if we sent the binary value 10100010, the pins highlighted in green in the image below would be active and the ones highlighted in red would be inactive.

This means that the right most bit that we specify maps to QH, and the left most bit maps to QA. An output is considered active when the bit mapped to it is set to 1. It is important to remember this, as otherwise you will have a very hard time knowing which pins you are using!

The chip also has an OE (output enable) pin, this is used to enable or disable the outputs all at once. You could attach this to a PWM capable Arduino pin and use ‘analogWrite’ to control the brightness of the LEDs. This pin is active low, so we tie it to GND.

Now that we have a basic understanding of how we use bit shifting to specify which pins to use, we can begin hooking it up to our Arduino!

# Examples

## LEDs and a Shift Register

Arduino includes a special function called ‘shiftOut’ that is designed specifically for sending data to shift registers. Here is the full sketch, the discussion of how it works follows on from it.

### Connection

Build the circuit as below:

It is probably easiest to put the 74HC595 chip in first, as pretty much everything else connects to it. Put it so that the little U-shaped notch is towards the top of the breadboard. Pin 1 of the chip is to the left of this notch.

• Digital 4 from the arduino goes to pin #14 of the shift register
• Digital 5 from the arduino goes to pin #12 of the shift register
• Digital 6 from the arduino goes to pin #11 of the shift register

All but one of the outputs from the ‘595 are on the left hand side of the chip, hence, for ease of connection, that is where the LEDs are too.

After the chip, put the resistors in place. You need to be careful that none of the leads of the resistors are touching each other. You should check this again, before you connect the power to your Arduino. If you find it difficult to arrange the resistors without their leads touching, then it helps to shorten the leads so that they are lying closer to the surface of the breadboard.Next, place the LEDs on the breadboard.

The longer positive LED leads must all be towards the chip, whichever side of the breadboard they are on.

It now just remains to attach the jumper leads as shown above. Do not forget the one that goes from pin 8 of the IC to the GND column of the breadboard.

Load up the sketch listed a bit later and try it out. Each LED should light in turn until all the LEDs are on, and then they all go off and the cycle repeats.

After above operations are completed, connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labelled PWR) should go on. Load up the following sketch onto your Arduino.

int latchPin = 5;
int clockPin = 6;
int dataPin = 4;

byte leds = 0;

void setup()
{
pinMode(latchPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(dataPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(clockPin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop()
{
leds = 0;
delay(500);
for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++)
{
bitSet(leds, i);
delay(500);
}
}

{
digitalWrite(latchPin, LOW);
shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, LSBFIRST, leds);
digitalWrite(latchPin, HIGH);
}


The first thing we do is define the three pins we are going to use. These are the Arduino digital outputs that will be connected to the latch, clock and data pins of the 74HC595.

int latchPin = 5;
int clockPin = 6;
int dataPin = 4;


Next, a variable called ‘leds’ is defined. This will be used to hold the pattern of which LEDs are currently turned on or off. Data of type ‘byte’ represents numbers using eight bits. Each bit can be either on or off, so this is perfect for keeping track of which of our eight LEDs are on or off.

byte leds = 0;


The ‘setup’ function just sets the three pins we are using to be digital outputs.

void setup()
{
pinMode(latchPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(dataPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(clockPin, OUTPUT);
}


The ‘loop’ function initially turns all the LEDs off, by giving the variable ‘leds’ the value 0. It then calls ‘updateShiftRegister’ that will send the ‘leds’ pattern to the shift register so that all the LEDs turn off. We will deal with how ‘updateShiftRegister’ works later.

The loop function pauses for half a second and then begins to count from 0 to 7 using the ‘for’ loop and the variable ‘i’. Each time, it uses the Arduino function ‘bitSet’ to set the bit that controls that LED in the variable ‘leds’. It then also calls ‘updateShiftRegister’ so that the leds update to reflect what is in the variable ‘leds’.

There is then a half second delay before ‘i’ is incremented and the next LED is lit.

void loop()
{
leds = 0;
delay(500);
for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++)
{
bitSet(leds, i);
delay(500);
}
}


The function ‘updateShiftRegister’, first of all sets the latchPin to low, then calls the Arduino function ‘shiftOut’ before putting the ‘latchPin’ high again. This takes four parameters, the first two are the pins to use for Data and Clock respectively.

The third parameter specifies which end of the data you want to start at. We are going to start with the right most bit, which is referred to as the ‘Least Significant Bit’ (LSB).

The last parameter is the actual data to be shifted into the shift register, which in this case is ‘leds’.

void updateShiftRegister()
{
digitalWrite(latchPin, LOW);
shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, LSBFIRST, leds);
digitalWrite(latchPin, HIGH);
}


If you wanted to turn one of the LEDs off rather than on, you would call a similar Arduino function (bitClear) on the ‘leds’ variable. This will set that bit of ‘leds’ to be 0 and you would then just need to follow it with a call to ‘updateShiftRegister’ to update the actual LEDs.

### Running Result

A few seconds after the upload finishes, each LED should light in turn until all the LEDs are on, and then they all go off and the cycle repeats.

## Control Led Brightness

One pin of the 74HC595 that I have not mentioned is a pin called ‘Output Enable’. This is pin 13 and on the breadboard, it is permanently connected to Ground. This pin acts as a switch, that can enable or disable the outputs – the only thing to watch for is it is ‘active low’ (connect to ground to enable). So, if it is connected to 5V, all the outputs go off. Whereas if it is connected to Ground, those outputs that are supposed to be on are on and those that should be off are off.

### Connection

Build the circuit as below:

We can use this pin along with the ‘analogWrite’ function, to control the brightness of the LEDs using PWM.

To do this, all you need to do, is to change the connection to pin 13 of the 74HC595 so that instead of connecting it to Ground, you connect it to pin 3 of the Arduino.

Load the sketch below, will once all the LEDs have been lit gradually fade them back to off.

int latchPin = 5;
int clockPin = 6;
int dataPin = 4;
int outputEnablePin = 3;

byte leds = 0;

void setup()
{
pinMode(latchPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(dataPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(clockPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(outputEnablePin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop()
{
setBrightness(255);
leds = 0;
delay(500);
for (int i = 0; i < 8; i++)
{
bitSet(leds, i);
delay(500);
}
for (byte b = 255; b > 0; b--)
{
setBrightness(b);
delay(50);
}
}

{
digitalWrite(latchPin, LOW);
shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, LSBFIRST, leds);
digitalWrite(latchPin, HIGH);
}

void setBrightness(byte brightness) // 0 to 255
{
analogWrite(outputEnablePin, 255-brightness);
}


### Running Result

If you’ve completed all these steps correctly you should have something similar to that in the gif below.

# Introduction

The digital temperature and humidity sensor DHT11 inside contains a chip that does analog to digital conversion and spits out a digital signal with the temperature and humidity, compatible with any MCUs, ideal for those who want some basic data logging stuffs. It’s very popular for electronics hobbyists because it is very cheap but still providing great performance.

In this lesson, we will first go into a little background about humidity, then we will explain how the DHT11 measures humidity. After that, we will show you how to connect the DHT11 to an Arduino and give you some example code so you can use the DHT11 in your own projects.

# Preparations

## Hardware

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• DHT11 Sensor x 1
• I2C LCD1602 x 1
• 10k ohm Resistor x 1
• Breadboard x 1
• Jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## Software

The DHT11 is a basic, ultra low-cost digital temperature and humidity sensor. It uses a capacitive humidity sensor and a thermistor to measure the surrounding air, and spits out a digital signal on the data pin (no analog input pins needed). Its fairly simple to use, but requires careful timing to grab data.

Only three pins are available for use: VCC, GND, and DATA. The communication process begins with the DATA line sending start signals to DHT11, and DHT11 receives the signals and returns an answer signal. Then the host receives the answer signal and begins to receive 40-bit humiture data (8-bit humidity integer + 8-bit humidity decimal + 8-bit temperature integer + 8-bit temperature decimal + 8-bit checksum).

## WHAT IS RELATIVE HUMIDITY?

The DHT11 measures relative humidity. Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor in air vs. the saturation point of water vapor in air. At the saturation point, water vapor starts to condense and accumulate on surfaces forming dew.

The saturation point changes with air temperature. Cold air can hold less water vapor before it becomes saturated, and hot air can hold more water vapor before it becomes saturated.

The formula to calculate relative humidity is:

$RH = (\frac{\rho_{w}}{\rho_{s}}) \ x \ 100 \% \\ \\ RH: \ Relative \ Humidity \\ \rho_{w}: \ Density \ of \ water \ vapor\\ \rho_{s}: \ Density \ of \ water \ vapor \ at \ saturation$

Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100% RH, condensation occurs, and at 0% RH, the air is completely dry.

## HOW THE DHT11 MEASURES HUMIDITY AND TEMPERATURE

The DHT11 detects water vapor by measuring the electrical resistance between two electrodes. The humidity sensing component is a moisture holding substrate with electrodes applied to the surface. When water vapor is absorbed by the substrate, ions are released by the substrate which increases the conductivity between the electrodes. The change in resistance between the two electrodes is proportional to the relative humidity. Higher relative humidity decreases the resistance between the electrodes, while lower relative humidity increases the resistance between the electrodes.

The DHT11 measures temperature with a surface mounted NTC temperature sensor (thermistor) built into the unit.

With the plastic housing removed, you can see the electrodes applied to the substrate, an IC mounted on the back of the unit converts the resistance measurement to relative humidity. It also stores the calibration coefficients, and controls the data signal transmission between the DHT11 and the Arduino:

## DHT11 Module

There are two different versions of the DHT11 you might come across. One type has four pins, and the other type has three pins and is mounted to a small PCB. The PCB mounted version is nice because it includes a surface mounted 10K Ohm pull up resistor for the signal line. Here are the pin outs for both versions:

# Examples

Before you can use the DHT11 on the Arduino, you’ll need to install the DHT library. It has all the functions needed to get the humidity and temperature readings from the sensor. It’s easy to install, just download the DHT.zip file and open up the Arduino IDE. Then go to Sketch>Include Library>Add .ZIP Library and select the DHT.zip file.

## Display Humidity and Temperature on the Serial Monitor

### Connection

Build the circuit as below:

Simply ignore pin 3 of DHT11, its not used. You will want to place a 10K resistor between VCC and the data pin, to act as a medium-strength pull up on the data line. The Arduino has built in pullups you can turn on but they’re very weak, about 20-50K

This diagram shows how we will connect for the testing sketch. Connect data to pin 3, you can change it later to any pin.

### Code Program

After above operations are completed, connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labelled PWR) should go on. Load up the following sketch onto your Arduino.

#include<dht.h> dht DHT; // if you require to change the pin number, Edit the pin with your arduino pin. #define DHT11_PIN 3 void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); Serial.println("The real time Temperature and Humidity is :"); } void loop() { // READ DATA int chk = DHT.read11(DHT11_PIN); Serial.print(" Humidity: " ); Serial.print(DHT.humidity, 1); Serial.println('%'); Serial.print(" Temparature "); Serial.print(DHT.temperature, 1); Serial.println('C'); delay(2000); }

### Running Result

A few seconds after the upload finishes, open the Serial Monitor, you should now see the humidity and temperature readings displayed at one second intervals.

Note: Please make sure you have choosed the correct port and the correct baudrate for you project.

## Display Humidity and Temperature on the I2C 1602LCD

A nice way to display the humidity and temperature readings is on a 1I2C 1602LCD. To do this, first follow our tutorial on How to Set Up an LCD Display on an Arduino, then follow below operations and complete this project.

### Connection

Build the circuit as below:

### Code Program

After above operations are completed, connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labelled PWR) should go on.Open the Arduino IDE and choose corresponding board type and port type for you project. Then load up the following sketch onto your Arduino.

#include <Wire.h> #include <LiquidCrystal_I2C.h> #include<dht.h> dht DHT; LiquidCrystal_I2C lcd(0x27,16,2); // set the LCD address to 0x27 for a 16 chars and 2 line display #define DHT11_PIN 3 void setup() { lcd.begin(16,2); lcd.init(); // initialize the lcd  // Print a message to the LCD. lcd.backlight(); lcd.clear(); lcd.print("Humidity & temp"); delay(3000); lcd.clear(); lcd.print("Starting....."); delay(3000); } void loop() { // READ DATA int chk = DHT.read11(DHT11_PIN); lcd.clear(); delay(500); lcd.setCursor(0, 0); // print from 0 to 9: lcd.print("Temp    : "); lcd.print(DHT.temperature, 1); lcd.print(" C"); // set the cursor to (16,1): lcd.setCursor(0,1); lcd.print("Humidity: "); lcd.print(DHT.humidity, 1); lcd.print(" %"); delay(2000); }

### Running Result

A few seconds after the upload finishes, you should now see the value of current humidity and temperature displayed on the LCD.

# Introduction

In this lesson,we will show how to use an active buzzer to make some noise.

# Preparations

## Hardware

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• Breadboard x 1
• Active Bzzer x 1
• M/M jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## Software

Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

As a type of electronic buzzer with integrated structure, buzzers, which are supplied by DC power, are widely used in computers, printers, photocopiers, alarms, electronic toys, automotive electronic devices, telephones, timers and other electronic products for voice devices. Buzzers can be categorized as active and passive ones (see the following picture). Turn the pins of two buzzers face up, and the one with a green circuit board is a passive buzzer, while the other enclosed with a black tape is an active one.

The difference between an active buzzer and a passive buzzer is:

An active buzzer has a built-in oscillating source, so it will make sounds when electrified. But a passive buzzer does not have such source, so it will not tweet if DC signals are used; instead, you need to use square waves whose frequency is between 2K and 5K to drive it. The active buzzer is often more expensive than the passive one because of multiple built-in oscillating circuits.In this lesson, we use the active buzzer.

Note:

The active buzzer has built-in oscillating source, so it will beep as long as it is electrified, but it can only beep with a fixed frequency.

# Connection

In this part, the only thing on the breadboard is the active buzzer. One pin of the active buzzer goes to GND connection and the other to digital pin 12.Build the circuit as below:

After above operations are completed, connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labelled PWR) should go on.

## Code Program

You can download the sketch from this link or copy below code to your Arduino IDE window:

int buzzer = 12;//the pin of the active buzzer
void setup() {
pinMode(buzzer,OUTPUT);//initialize the buzzer pin as an output
}
void loop() {
unsigned char i;
while(1)
{ //output an frequency
for(i=0;i<80;i++) {
digitalWrite(buzzer,HIGH);
delay(1);//wait for 1ms
digitalWrite(buzzer,LOW);
delay(1);//wait for 1ms
} //output another frequency
for(i=0;i<100;i++) {
digitalWrite(buzzer,HIGH);
delay(2);//wait for 2ms
digitalWrite(buzzer,LOW);
delay(2);//wait for 2ms
}
}
}

## Compile and upload

Open the Arduino IDE and select corresponding board type and port type for your Arduino board.

After compile this sketch, simply click the “Upload” button in the environment. Wait a few seconds – you should see the RX and TX leds on the board flashing. If the upload is successful, the message “Done uploading.” will appear in the status bar.

# Running Result

A few seconds after the upload finishes, you should hear the buzzer beep.

Note again:

The active buzzer has built-in oscillating source, so it will beep as long as it is electrified, but it can only beep with a fixed frequency.

# Introduction

Many Applications can created by measuring Vibration level, but sensing vibration accurately is a difficult job. This article describes about vibration sensor SW-420 and Arduino interface then it may help you to design effort less vibration measurement.

# Preparations

## HARDWARE

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• Breadboard x 1
• Vibration Sensor Module x 1
• Jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## SOFTWARE

Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

# About Vibration Sensor Module

Vibration Sensor Module comes with SW-420 vibration sensor, integrated with adjustable sensitivity via on board potentiometer. There are also LED indicators for power and the digital output status on board. It has a simple and straight forward 3-pin interface, VCC, GND and the DO (digital output). It supports 3.3V or 5V power.

This vibration sensor module is compatible with any microcontroller that has a digital input, so of course any popular microcontroller such and PIC, Arduino and Raspberry Pi are compatible. A direct interface is essential to using this sensor.

The DO pin will be LOW when there is no vibration, and indicator LED will lit up.

Module Features:

• SW-420 using the company’s production of normally closed type vibration sensor.
• The comparator output, the signal is clean, the waveform, the driving ability to exceed 15mA
• Operating voltage 3.3V-5V
• The output in the form: Digital switching outputs (0 and 1)
• A fixed bolt hole for easy installation
• Small board PCB size: 3.2cm x 1.4cm
• Wide voltage LM393 comparator

Uses:

This Vibration Sensor can be used to detect vibration from any angle. There is an on-board potentiometer to adjust the threshold of vibration. It outputs logic HIGH when this module not triggered while logic Low when triggered.

#### Application Idea

•Automobie alarm.

•Movement detection.

•Vibration detecting Applications Features

# Examples

## Connection

Connect Vcc pin of sensor board to 5V pin of Arduino board, connect Gnd pin to Gnd pin of Arduino, Connect DO output signal pin of sensor board to Arduino digital pin D3. Do some calibration and adjust the sensitivity threshold, then upload the following sketch to Arduino board.

 Vibration Sensor Module OSOYOO UNO VCC 5V GND GND DO PIN 3

## In this project, we will connect Arduino with Vibration sensor and LED. When no vibration is detected, Vibration sensor output is 0 (low voltage),otherwise its output is 1(high voltage)。 If Arduino get 0 (no vibration) from vibration sensor it will turn on green LED and turn off Red LED. If Arduino get 1 from vibration sensor, it will turn on Red LED and turn off green LED.(Please choose the correct board type and correct port com for your Arduino IDE)Arduino Code for Value Reading

Arduino Code for Value Reading and serial printing Vibration value, this code turns ON the onboard LED when measurement goes greater than 1000, you can adjust this threshold to your need.

Finally, you should open the Arduino IDE serial monitor at a 9600 baud rate and you’ll see:

# Introduction

Overhere we will show you what is the flame sensor and how it works, you can follow the next lesson to get how to use the flame sensor with the Osoyoo UNO board.

Flame sensor is an electronic device which is capable of sensing/detection of fire or a high temperature zone. It gives an indication through an LED attached at its top, just after sensing the fire. These type of sensors are usually used for short ranges. They are able to detect the fire up to 3 feet. Flame sensors is the most common device available in the market these days due to its good results and cost efficiency.

Flame sensors are available in the market in two types one having three pins and the other having four pins respectively. Both of the sensors can be easily interfaced to any micro-controller. We are using four pin flame sensor in this tutorial. You will see the complete wiring diagram for interfacing flame sensor with Arduino and the complete Arduino source code and its description as well.

# Preparations

## Hardware

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• Flame Sensor x 1
• F/M jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## Software

• Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

# About Flame Sensor

The Flame Sensor can detect flames in the 760 – 1100 nano meter wavelength range. Small flames like a lighter flame can be detected at roughly 0.8m. Detection angle is roughly 60 degrees and the sensor is particularly sensitive to the flame spectrum.The module consists of an IR sensor, potentiometer, OP-Amp circuitry and a led indicator. An on board LM393 op amp is used as a comparator to adjust the sensitivity level. The sensor has a digital and analog output and sensitivity can be adjusted via the blue potentiometer.

## Features

• The operating voltage is from 3.3 – 5V.
• It gives us both analog and digital output.
• It has a led indicator, which indicates that whether the flame is detected or not.
• The threshold value can be changes by rotating the top of potentiometer.
• Flame detection distance, lighter flame test can be triggered within 0.8m, if the intensity of flame is high, the detection distance will be increased.
• The detection angle of the flame sensor module is about 60 degrees.

It has both outputs, analog and digital. The analog output gives us a real time voltage output signal on thermal resistance while the digital output allows us to set a threshold via a potentiometer. In our tutorial we are going to use both of these outputs one by one and see how the sensor works.We can use the flame sensor to make an alarm when detecting the fire, for safety purpose in many projects and in many more ways.

## Working Principle

• Flame sensor is very sensitive to flame and other lights.
• Its analog output provides real time output voltage on the thermal resistance.
• When the temperatures reaches at the certain threshold the output high and low signal threshold adjustable via potentio-meter , Its the task of digital output.

## flame sensor Pin Out

The pin out of the flame is as follows.

A0: This is the analog pin and this will be connected to the analog pin of the Arduino.

G/GND: This is the ground pin and this will be connected to the ground of the Arduino.

+/VCC: This is the input voltage pin of the sensor and this will be connected to the +5V of Arduino.

D0: This is the digital pin and this will be connected to the digital pin of Arduino.

## Flame Sensor Digital (D0) Output

int Buzzer = 13; // Use buzzer for alert
int FlamePin = 2;  // This is for input pin
int Flame = HIGH;  // HIGH when FLAME Exposed

void setup() {
pinMode(Buzzer, OUTPUT);
pinMode(FlamePin, INPUT); Serial.begin(9600);

}

void loop() {
if (Flame== HIGH)
{ Serial.println("HIGH FLAME");
digitalWrite(Buzzer, HIGH);
}
else
{ Serial.println("No flame");
digitalWrite(Buzzer, LOW);
}
}



### Flame Sensor Analog (A0) Output

const int analogPin = A0;    // Flame Sensor (A0) to Arduino analog input pin A0
const int BuzzerPin = 13;       // Buzzer output pin
const int threshold = 400;   // Flame level threshold (You can vary the value depends on your need)

void setup() {

pinMode(BuzzerPin, OUTPUT);
// initialize serial communications: Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {
// read the value of the Flame Sensor:
int analogValue = analogRead(analogPin); Serial.println(analogValue); //serial print the FLAME sensor value

if (analogValue > threshold) {
digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH); Serial.print("High FLAME");
}
else if (analogValue = threshold){ Serial.print("Low FLAME");
digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, HIGH);
delay(400);
digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW);
}
else {
digitalWrite(BuzzerPin, LOW); Serial.print("No flame");
}

delay(1);
}

# Introduction

In this tutorial we are going to design a Barometric Pressure Measuring System using BMP180 and ARDUINO. First of all for interfacing BMP180 to ARDUINO, we need to download a library specifically designed for BMP180. This library is available at: https://github.com/adafruit/Adafruit-BMP085-Library After attaching that library, we can call special functions which will ease working with BMP180 sensor.

# Preparations

## Hardware

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• Barometric Pressure Sensor BMP 180 x 1
• F/M jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

# About I2C LCD 1602 Display

This pressure sensor is a BMP-180 based digital barometric pressure sensor module and is functional compatible with older BMP-085 digital pressure sensor with less power consumption smaller in size and more accurate. BMP180 combines barometric pressure, temperature and altitude. The I2C allows easy interface with any microcontroller. On board 3.3V LDO regulator makes this board fully 5V supply compatible. BMP-180 can measure pressure range from 300 to 1100hPa (+9000m to -500m relating to sea level) with an accuracy down to 0.02hPa (0.17m) in advance resolution mode. BMP-180 is an improved replacement for BMP-085 sensor. BMP-180 uses piezo-resistive technology for high accuracy, linearity, EMC robustness and stability for a longer period of time.

Features:

• Measuring the absolute pressure of the environment using a digital barometer such as this has some interesting applications. By converting the pressure measured into altitude, you have a reliable sensor for determining the height of your robot, plane or projectile!
• Using a sensor as capable as the BMP180 you can achieve accuracy of 1m, with noise of only 17cm in ultra high resolution noise.
• The device will operate at only 0.3uA meaning low current draw for battery powered applications.
• The BMP180 comes fully calibrated and ready to use.
• As the device operates over I2C we’ve added optional I2C pull ups that can be enabled using the PU (pull up) jumper on the board for your convenience and ease during breadboarding.
• Using I2C, the device provides pressure and temperature as 16bit values, which are used along with calibration data within the device to provide a temperature compensated altitude calculation.

Specifications:

• 1.8V/5V Supply Voltage
• Low power consumption – 0.5uA at 1Hz
• I2C interface
• Max I2C Speed: 3.5MHz
• Very low noise – up to 0.02hPa (17cm)
• Full calibrated
• Pressure Range: 300hPa to 1100hPa ( 9000m to -500m)
• Weight: 1.18g
• Size: 21mm x 18mm

## Working of BMP180

The BMP180 consists of a piezo-resistive sensor, an analog to digital converter and a control unit with E2PROM and a serial I2C interface. The BMP180 delivers the uncompensated value of pressure and temperature.The microcontroller sends a start sequence to start a pressure or temperature measurement. After converting time, the result value (pressure or temperature respectively) can be read via the I2C interface. For calculating temperature in °C and pressure in hPa, the calibration data has to be used. These constants can be read out from the BMP180 E2PROM via the I2C interface at software initialization.The sampling rate can be increased up to 128 samples per second (standard mode) for dynamic measurement. In this case, it is sufficient to measure the temperature only once per second and to use this value for all pressure measurements during the same period.

## Applications

• Temprerature Monitoring
• Pressure Monitoring
• Altitude Monitoring
• 3D navigating in the complex indoor spaces(cooperate with accelerometer)

## Connecting Wires to the Board

You can use any method you like to make your connections to the board. For this example, we’ll solder on a five-pin length of male-male header strip, and use male/female jumper wires to connect the BMP180 to your Arduino.

Solder a 5-pin length of male-male header to the board. You can solder it to either side; the bottom is more useful for breadboards, and the top is more useful for jumper wires.

Note that the BMP180 is sensitive to moisture. When you’re done soldering, do not clean off the flux by rinsing the board in water or other fluids.

### Connecting the Board to your Arduino

In the following sections, we can see how to interface the breakout board with Osoyoo UNO. The breakout board has 5 pins which are mentioned below. The board has 3.3V regulator. So you can use either 5V or 3.3V as supply voltage.

SDA I2C data Any pin labeled SDA, or:

 Uno, Redboard, Pro / Pro Mini A4 Mega, Due 20 Leonardo, Pro Micro 2
SCL I2C clock Any pin labeled SCL, or:

 Uno, Redboard, Pro / Pro Mini A5 Mega, Due 21 Leonardo, Pro Micro 3
GND ground GND
VCC 3.3V/5V power supply 3.3V/5V
3.3V 3.3V 3.3V

## Measuring Weather and Altitude

The BMP180 was designed to accurately measure atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure varies with both weather and altitude; you can measure both of these using this sensor. Here’s how:

### What is Atmospheric Pressure?

The definition of pressure is a force “pressing” on an area. A common unit of pressure is pounds per square inch (psi). One pound, pressing on one square inch, equals one psi. The SI unit is newtons per square meter, which are called pascals (Pa).

There are lots of situations in which pressure can be measured (gravity, pull, etc.), but right now we’re interested in atmospheric pressure, which is the force that the air around you is exerting on everything. The weight of the gasses in the atmosphere creates atmospheric pressure. One doesn’t normally notice that air weighs anything, but if you took a one inch wide column of air from sea level to the top of the atmosphere, it would weigh about 14.7 pounds. (A 1 cm wide column of air would weigh about 1 kg.) This weight, pressing down on the footprint of that column, creates the atmospheric pressure that we can measure with sensors like the BMP180.

Because that inch-wide column of air weighs about 14.7 pounds, and is pressing on one square inch, it follows that the average sea level pressure is about 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi), or 101325 pascals. This will drop about 4% for each 1000 feet (or 300 meters) you ascend. The higher you get, the less pressure you’ll see, because the column to the top of the atmosphere is that much shorter and therefore weighs less. This is useful to know, because by measuring the pressure and doing some math, you can determine your altitude.

Fun fact: The air pressure at 12,500 feet (3810 meters) is only half of that at sea level. In other words, half of the mass of the atmosphere is below 12,500 feet, and the air at 12,500 feet is half as dense as that at sea level. No wonder you have a harder time breathing up there.

The BMP180 outputs absolute pressure in pascals (Pa). One pascal is a very small amount of pressure, approximately the amount that a sheet of paper will exert resting on a table. You will more often see measurements in hectopascals (1 hPa = 100 Pa) or kilopascals (1 kPa = 1000 Pa). The Arduino library we’ve provided outputs floating-point values in hPa, which also happens to equal one millibar (mbar).

Here are some conversions to other pressure units:

1 hPa = 100 Pa = 1 mbar = 0.001 bar

1 hPa = 0.75006168 Torr

1 hPa = 0.01450377 psi (pounds per square inch)

1 hPa = 0.02953337 inHg (inches of mercury)

1 hpa = 0.00098692 atm (standard atmospheres)

### Temperature Effects

Because temperature affects the density of a gas, and density affects the mass of a gas, and mass affects the pressure (whew), atmospheric pressure will change dramatically with temperature. Pilots know this as “density altitude”, which makes it easier to take off on a cold day than a hot one because the air is more dense and has a greater aerodynamic effect.

To compensate for temperature, the BMP180 includes a rather good temperature sensor as well as a pressure sensor. To perform a pressure reading, you first take a temperature reading, then combine that with a raw pressure reading to come up with a final temperature-compensated pressure measurement. (Don’t worry, the Arduino library makes all of this very easy.)

### Measuring Absolute Pressure

As we just mentioned, if your application requires measuring absolute pressure, all you have to do is get a temperature reading, then perform a pressure reading (see the example sketch for details). The final pressure reading will be in hPa = mbar. If you wish, you can convert this to a different unit using the above conversion factors.

Note that the absolute pressure of the atmosphere will vary with both your altitude and the current weather patterns, both of which are useful things to measure.

### Weather Observations

The atmospheric pressure at any given location on earth (or anywhere with an atmosphere) isn’t constant. The complex interaction between the earth’s spin, axis tilt, and many other factors result in moving areas of higher and lower pressure, which in turn cause the variations in weather we see every day. By watching for changes in pressure, you can predict short-term changes in the weather. For example, dropping pressure usually means wet weather or a storm is approaching (a low-pressure system is moving in). Rising pressure usually means that clear weather is approaching (a high-pressure system is moving through).

But remember that atmospheric pressure also varies with altitude. The absolute pressure in Denver (altitude 5280′) will always be lower than the absolute pressure in San Francisco (altitude 52′). If weather stations just reported their absolute pressure, it would be difficult to directly compare pressure measurements from one location to another (and large-scale weather predictions depend on measurements from as many stations as possible).

To solve this problem, weather stations always remove the effects of altitude from their reported pressure readings by mathematically adding the equivalent fixed pressure to make it appear as if the reading was taken at sea level. When you do this, a higher reading in San Francisco than Denver will always be because of weather patterns, and not because of altitude.

To do this, there is a function in the library called seaLevel(P,A). This takes absolute pressure (P) in hPa, and the station’s current altitude (A) in meters, and removes the effects of the altitude from the pressure. You can use the output of this function to directly compare your weather readings to other stations around the world.

For more information, here is a good Wikipedia article on mean sea level pressure.

### Determining Altitude

Since pressure varies with altitude, you can use a pressure sensor to measure altitude (with a few caveats).

The average pressure of the atmosphere at sea level is 1013.25 hPa (or mbar). This drops off to zero as you climb towards the vacuum of space. Because the curve of this drop-off is well understood, you can compute the altitude difference between two pressure measurements (p and p0) by using this equation:

There are two ways you can take advantage of this.

1. If you use sea level pressure (1013.25 hPa) as the baseline pressure (p0), the output of the equation will be your current altitude above sea level.
2. Or, if you take a single pressure reading at your current location, and use that as your baseline (p0), all subsequent pressure readings will result in relative altitude changes from the baseline. Climb the stairs and you should see the altitude go from zero to 3 or 4 meters. Go down to the basement, and you’ll see -3 or -4 meters. There’s an example sketch included with the library called BMP180_altitude_example.ino that shows how to do this.

There’s a function in the library called altitude(P,P0) that lets you accomplish both of these things. If you give it the sea level pressure (1013.25 hPa) for p0, and your local pressure for p, it will give you your altitude above sea level. If you use a local pressure measurement for p0, subsequent p pressure readings will give you your change in altitude from the baseline.

Now for the caveats:

Accuracy: How accurate is this? The theoretical noise level at the BMP180s highest resolution is 0.25m (about 10 inches), though in practice we see noise on the order of 1m (40 inches). You can improve the accuracy by taking a large number of readings and averaging them, although this will slow down your sample rate and response time.

Weather: You should also remember that pressure changes due to weather will affect your altitude readings. The best accuracy will be obtained if you take a “fresh” p0 when you need it and don’t rely on it to be accurate for extended periods due to changes in the weather.

Maximum altitude: The BMP180 can’t measure all the way down to vacuum (or up to space). It’s advertised lower limit is about 300 hPa (or mbar), which corresponds to an altitude of about 3000m or 30,000 feet. People have flown these to higher altitudes and gotten useful results, but this isn’t guaranteed or likely to be accurate. (You might consider using GPS for high-altitude measurements).

Minimum altitude: Similarly, this sensor isn’t suited for large pressures either. The advertised upper limit is 1100 hPa=mbar (or 16 psi), which is about 500 feet below sea level (that’s in air – the BMP180 isn’t submersible in water). This sensor isn’t a good choice for submersible or compressed-gas measurements.

# Important recommendations

Here are some important recommendations for making correct measurements and protecting the BMP180.

• The BMP180 must be in contact with the ambient air to carry out the measurements. If you need to integrate the sensor into a housing, do not forget to provide holes for air circulation.
• Do not expose the BMP180 excessively to the airflow of a fan, as this may result in erroneous or very fluctuating measurements.
• The measurement of the atmospheric pressure depends on the temperature. Avoid placing the BMP180 in front of a source of heat, still less in front of a source producing rapid changes (heating, window in full sun …).
• The BMP180 is sensitive to moisture and is not intended for direct contact with water.
• It is also sensitive to light. It should be protected as much as possible from ambient light. Do not place the sensor in front of the ventilation hole of your case, for example.
• The BMP180 accepts a supply voltage between 1.8 and 3.6 Volts. The best way is to use the 3.3V output of your Arduino without ever exceeding 3.6V (according to Sparkfun).

# Find the I2C address

Each device has an I2C address that it uses to accept commands or send messages. For Uno board, this address usually is 0x27. But sometimes the address might be changed 0x37,0x24 …., So let’s go and look for the one on your device.

Download ic2_scanner sketch zip file , then unzip and load it into Arduino IDE. By opening up the serial monitor in the upright corner, Arduino will scan the address range looking for a reply. Most Arduino board will show 0x27, however it be other number.

Write down the Address that you have found, you may need it in the next step.

# 3 methods to read the temperature and atmospheric pressure on the BMP180

## Without using external library

Create a new project and paste the code below originally developed by Leo Nutz. It does not use any external libraries to communicate and perform measurement conversions. Less practical but also a little more compact than an external library which can prove very useful in an Arduino project.

# With the Adafruit_BMP085 library

The Adafruit library (Adafruit_BMP085) has not been updated. It is still based on the BMP085. Unlike the Sparkfun bookshop, the altitude estimate is (almost) correct.

# With the Sparfun library

The Sparkfun library is available here. Two examples are provided, one of which incorporates an estimate of the altitude according to the formula described below.

# Introduction

In this project, we will show what is MQ-5 Sensor and how to use it with the Arduino board.

# Preparations

## HARDWARE

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• MQ-7 Sensor x 1
• Jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## SOFTWARE

• Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

# About MQ-7 Gas Sensor

### Description

MQ-7 Semiconductor Sensor for Combustible Gas

Sensitive material of MQ-7 gas sensor is SnO2, which with lower conductivity in clean air. It make detection by method of cycle high and low temperature, and detect CO when low temperature (heated by 1.5V). The sensors conductivity is more higher along with the gas concentration rising. When high temperature (heated by 5.0V), it cleans the other gases adsorbed under low temperature. Please use simple electrocircuit, Convert change of conductivity to correspond output signal of gas concentration.

MQ-7 gas sensor has high sensitity to Carbon Monoxide. The sensor could be used to detect different gases contains CO, it is with low cost and suitable for different application.

### Character

• High sensitivity to Combustible gas in wide range
• High sensitivity to Natural gas
• Fast response
• Wide detection range
• Stable performance, long life, low cost
• Simple drive circuit

### Introduction to MQ-7 Carbon Monoxide Sensor

According to its datasheet, the MQ-7 carbon monoxide sensor detects 20 to 2000 ppm of CO in air. Here is its sensitivity characteristic curve:

This is a graph of Rs/R0 vs. gas concentration in ppm. Rs is the resistance of the sensor in target gas while R0 is the resistance in clean air. We will use this graph later when we create our code.

This breakout board is more convenient as it converts resistance variations to voltage variations. Here is its schematic diagram:

There are two ways to read the output from the MQ-7. One is through the DOUT pin which gives a high when the concentration threshold is reached and low otherwise. The threshold can be varied by adjusting the trimmer on the breakout board which is Rp in the schematic.

Meanwhile, the AOUT pin gives varying voltage representing the CO concentration. We can convert the voltage reading to ppm if we look at the characteristic curve above. The relationship between concentration in ppm and RS/R0 is:

$ppm = 100 * \frac{log(40)}{log(0.09)}^ {\frac{RS}{R0}}$

# Example

## Connection

Connect the MQ 7 Sensro and the Arduino Board as below digram:

## Arduino Sketch for MQ-7

The first block of code defines all the pin connections of the sensor and the LED. Since the AOUTpin connects to analog pin A0, it is initialized to 0. Since the DOUTpin connects to digital pin D8, it is initialized to 8. Since the LED connects to digital pin D13, it is initialized to 13. 2 variables, limit and value, are also declared. These will be used to store the value of the analog pin AOUT and digital pin DOUT.

The next block of code sets the baud rate and declares the DOUTpin as input and the ledPin as output. This is because the sensor is an input to the arduino for the arduino to read and process the sensor value. And the LED is an output will serves an indicator if the sensor has detected alcohol.

The next block of code reads the sensor pin AOUT and stores the value in the integer value. It also reads the sensor pin DOUT and stores the value in the integer limit. We then print the alcohol value, which will be a numeric value ranging from either 0 (no alcohol detected) to 1023 (maximum level of carbon monoxide that can be read). We will aslo print the limit which will either be HIGH or LOW. If the CO detected is under the threshold level, the value of limit returned will be low. If the CO detected is above the threshold, the value of limit returned will be HIGH.

If the value is HIGH, the LED will turn on. If the value is low, the LED will remain off.

# Introduction

In this project, we will show what is MQ-5 Sensor and how to use it with the Arduino board.

# Preparations

## HARDWARE

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• MQ-5 Sensor x 1
• Jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## SOFTWARE

• Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

# About MQ-5 Gas Sensor

The gas sensitive material used in MQ-5 gas sensor is SnO2, which is of lower electrical conductivity in clean air. When there is combustible gas in the environment where sensor resides, the electrical conductivity of the sensor increases with the increase of the combustible gas concentration in the air. The change of electrical conductivity can be converted to the output signal corresponding to that of the gas concentration by using a simple circuit.

The sensitivity of MQ-5 gas sensor to propane, propane and methane is quite high, and the methane and propane can be well detected. This sensor can detect a variety of combustible gases, especially natural gas, making it a low-cost sensor for a variety of applications.

In this tutorial, we are using the MQ5 Gas sensor module (which is widely available in market) . This module has two output possibilities – an analog out (A0) and a digital out (D0). The analog out can be used to detect Gas leakage and to measure volume of Gas leakage (by doing proper calculation of the sensor output inside program) in specific units (say ppm). The digital out can be used to detect Gas leakage and hence trigger an alert system (say a sound alarm or an sms activation etc). The digital out gives only two possible outputs – High and Low (hence its more suited for detection of gas leak than to measure volume of gas presence).

## Specification

Item Parameter Min Typical Max Unit
VCC Working Voltage 4.9 5 5.1 V
PH Heating consumption 0.5 800 mW
RH Heater resistance 31±10% Ω
Rs Sensing Resistance 10 60
Scope Detecting Concentration 200 10000 ppm
• Response Time (tres) : ≤ 10S
• Recovery Time (TREC): ≤ 30S

## Features

• Low Cost
• High Sensitivity to LPG and Natural Gas
• Flat Response
• Stable and Long Life
• Both Digital and Analog Outputs
• On-board LED Indicator
• Application: Domestic gas leakage detector, Industrial Combustible gas detector, Portable gas detector, Gas leak alarm, Gas detector

Note

The sensor value only reflects the approximated trend of gas concentration in a permissible error range, it DOES NOT represent the exact gas concentration. The detection of certain components in the air usually requires a more precise and costly instrument, which cannot be done with a single gas sensor. If your project is aimed at obtaining the gas concentration at a very precise level, then we do not recommend this gas sensor.

# Example

## Interfacing MQ5 Gas Sensor Module to Arduino using Digital Out Pin

This is pretty simple. Connect the D0 pin of MQ5 module to any digital pin of arduino. Lets connect D0 to pin 7 of arduino. Now we need to give power supply (Vcc) and complete the circuit by connecting to ground (Gnd). Refer the circuit diagram given below. Take a +5V connection from arduino and connect it to Vcc of MQ5 module. Finally connect the GND pin of MQ5 module to GND of arduino. That’s all and we have finished the circuit.

### Circuit Diagram of Interfacing MQ5 to Arduino (Digital Out)

 MQ-5 Sensor OSOYOO UNO Board VCC +5V GND GND D0 D7

Note:- MQ5 sensor has preheating requirement. We advise to keep the sensor powered on (from arduino) for some 15 minutes before applying gas to it.

### CODE

Note:- To apply a “gas leak” to MQ5 sensor, you can simply use a cigarette or cigar lighter! Press the trigger switch of cigarette lighter gently (gentle enough so as gas leaks and spark is not triggered) to get gas leaked continuously and place the lighter near MQ5 sensor.

### Output Screenshots!

The screenshots below shows serial monitor readings of arduino before applying gas leak and after applying gas leak. Before applying gas leak, MQ5 captures atmospheric air concentration only (we get a HIGH in our digital out pin and is measured by arduino as 1, as shown in serial monitor).

When we apply a “gas leak”, the heating element inside MQ5 gets heated up and output voltage varies (we get a LOW in our D0 pin and is measured by arduino as 0, as shown in serial monitor output screenshot )

## Interfacing MQ5 Gas Sensor Module to Arduino using Analog Out Pin

The connections are very simple, just like we interfaced MQ5 using digital out pin. In this method, instead of DO, connect analog out pin AO of MQ5 to any of the arduino analog pins. In this tutorial, we are connecting analog out pin of MQ5 to A0 pin of Arduino. Connect Vcc and Ground properly as shown in circuit diagram and we are finished wiring part. Now there’s a little change in the program part. Instead of digitalRead, we need analogRead command of arduino to read sensor values. Output values are also different, instead of 0 and 1 we have a series of integer values ranging from 0 to 1023.

### Circuit Diagram – MQ5 to Arduino (Analog Out)

 MQ-5 Sensor OSOYOO UNO Board VCC +5V GND GND A0 A0

### CODE

##### Output screenshots!

The outputs as seen in serial monitor of arduino are given below. Let’s first see the default output values (when no gas leak is applied) where MQ5 senses atmospheric air concentration only.

Okay! Now let’s apply some “gas leak” by pressing the switch of a cigar lighter gently! You can see the output value is in the range of 800+ as opposed to very low values (in the range of 40’s) when there is no gas leak.

We have seen the sensor reading in different states – in digital out mode and in analog out mode. We know the sensor reading in different conditions for both output modes- i.e – when there is no gas leak and when there is gas leak.

# Introduction

In this project, we will go over how to build a smoke sensor circuit with an arduino board.

The smoke sensor we will use is the MQ-2. This is a sensor that is not only sensitive to smoke, but also to flammable gas.

The MQ-2 smoke sensor reports smoke by the voltage level that it outputs. The more smoke there is, the greater the voltage that it outputs. Conversely, the less smoke that it is exposed to, the less voltage it outputs.

# Preparations

## Hardware

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• I2C LCD 1602 Display x 1
• F/M jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## Software

• Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

# About MQ2 Smoke Sensor

The MQ-2 smoke sensor is sensitive to smoke and to the following flammable gases:

• LPG
• Butane
• Propane
• Methane
• Alcohol
• Hydrogen

The resistance of the sensor is different depending on the type of the gas.

The smoke sensor has a built-in potentiometer that allows you to adjust the sensor sensitivity according to how accurate you want to detect gas.

### Features

1. Wide detecting scope
2. High sensitivity and fast response
3. Long life and stable
4. Simple drive circuit

Due to its fast response time and high sensitivity, measurements can be taken as soon as possible. The sensor sensitivity can be adjusted by using the potentiometer.

### Standard Working Condition

 Symbol Parameter Name Technical Condition Remarks VC Circuit voltage 5V±0.1 AC or DC VH Heating voltage 5V±0.1 AC or DC RL Load resistance adjustable RH Heater resistance 33Kohm±5% Room temperature PH Heating consumption Less than 800mW

### Environment Condition

 Symbol Parameter Name Technical Condition Remarks TO Operating Temp. -20°C-50°C TS Storage Temp. -20°C-70°C RH Relative Humidity <95% O2 Oxygen Concentration 21%(standard condition) Oxygen concentration can affect sensitivity Minimum value is 2%

### Sensitivity Characteristics

 Symbol Parameter Name Technical Condition Remarks RS Sensor Resistance 3Kohm-30Kohm (1000ppm iso-butane) Detecting concentration scope: 200ppm-5000ppm LPG and propane 300ppm-5000ppm butane 5000ppm-20000ppm methane 300ppm-5000ppm H2 100ppm-2000ppm Alcohol α (3000ppm/1000ppm iso-butane) Concentration slope rate ≤0.6 Standard detecting Condition Temp.: 20°C±2°C VC: 5V±0.1 Humidity:65%±5% VH:5V±0.1 Preheating Time Over 24 hours

### How does it Work?

The MQ2 has an electrochemical sensor, which changes its resistance for different concentrations of varied gasses. The sensor is connected in series with a variable resistor to form a voltage divider circuit , and the variable resistor is used to change sensitivity. When one of the above gaseous elements comes in contact with the sensor after heating, the sensor’s resistance change. The change in the resistance changes the voltage across the sensor, and this voltage can be read by a microcontroller. The voltage value can be used to find the resistance of the sensor by knowing the reference voltage and the other resistor’s resistance. The sensor has different sensitivity for different types of gasses. The sensitivity characteristic curve is shown below for the different type of gasses.

The voltage that the sensor outputs changes accordingly to the smoke/gas level that exists in the atmosphere. The sensor outputs a voltage that is proportional to the concentration of smoke/gas.

In other words, the relationship between voltage and gas concentration is the following:

• The greaterthe gas concentration,the greaterthe output voltage
• The lowerthe gas concentration,the lowerthe output voltage

Working Mechanism

The output can be an analog signal (A0) that can be read with an analog input of the Arduino or a digital output (D0) that can be read with a digital input of the Arduino.

Note

The sensor value only reflects the approximated trend of gas concentration in a permissible error range, it DOES NOT represent the exact gas concentration. The detection of certain components in the air usually requires a more precise and costly instrument, which cannot be done with a single gas sensor. If your project is aimed at obtaining the gas concentration at a very precise level, then we don’t recommend this gas sensor.

### Gas Detection : Basic Example

In this example, the sensor is connected to A0 pin. The voltage read from the sensor is displayed. This value can be used as a threshold to detect any increase/decrease in gas concentration.

void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {
float sensor_volt;
float sensorValue;

sensor_volt = sensorValue/1024*5.0;

Serial.print("sensor_volt = ");
Serial.print(sensor_volt);
Serial.println("V");
delay(1000);
}


### Measurement : Approximation

These examples demonstrate ways to know the approximate concentration of Gas. As per the data-sheet of the MQx sensors, these equations are tested for standard conditions and are not calibrated. It may vary based on change in temperature or humidity.

• Keep the Gas Sensor in clean air environment. Upload the program below.
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {
float sensor_volt;
float RS_air; //  Get the value of RS via in a clear air
float R0;  // Get the value of R0 via in H2
float sensorValue;

/*--- Get a average data by testing 100 times ---*/
for(int x = 0 ; x < 100 ; x++)
{
sensorValue = sensorValue + analogRead(A0);
}
sensorValue = sensorValue/100.0;
/*-----------------------------------------------*/

sensor_volt = sensorValue/1024*5.0;
RS_air = (5.0-sensor_volt)/sensor_volt; // omit *RL
R0 = RS_air/9.8; // The ratio of RS/R0 is 9.8 in a clear air from Graph (Found using WebPlotDigitizer)

Serial.print("sensor_volt = ");
Serial.print(sensor_volt);
Serial.println("V");

Serial.print("R0 = ");
Serial.println(R0);
delay(1000);

}

• Then, open the serial monitor of Arduino IDE. Write down the value of R0 and this will be used in the next program. Please write down the R0 after the reading stabilizes.Replace the R0 below with value of R0 tested above . Expose the sensor to any one of the gas listed above.
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}

void loop() {

float sensor_volt;
float RS_gas; // Get value of RS in a GAS
float ratio; // Get ratio RS_GAS/RS_air
int sensorValue = analogRead(A0);
sensor_volt=(float)sensorValue/1024*5.0;
RS_gas = (5.0-sensor_volt)/sensor_volt; // omit *RL

/*-Replace the name "R0" with the value of R0 in the demo of First Test -*/
ratio = RS_gas/R0;  // ratio = RS/R0
/*-----------------------------------------------------------------------*/

Serial.print("sensor_volt = ");
Serial.println(sensor_volt);
Serial.print("RS_ratio = ");
Serial.println(RS_gas);
Serial.print("Rs/R0 = ");
Serial.println(ratio);

Serial.print("\n\n");

delay(1000);

}



### Arduino MQ-2 Smoke Alarm

The circuit we will build is shown below.

So to power the smoke sensor, we connect pin 2 of the smoke sensor to the 5V terminal of the arduino and terminal 3 to the GND terminal of the arduino. This gives the smoke sensor the 5 volts it needs to be powered.

The output of the sensor goes into analog pin A0 of the arduino. Through this connection, the arduino can read the analog voltage output from the sensor. The arduino board has a built-in analog-to-digital converter, so it is able to read analog values without any external ADC chip.

Depending on the value that the arduino reads determines the action that will occur with the circuit. We will make it in our code that if the sensor outputs a voltage above a certain threshold, the buzzer will go off, alerting a user that smoke has been detected.

These are all the physical connections in order for our circuit to work.

### Code for the Arduino MQ-2 Smoke Sensor Circuit

Being that we’ve just gone over the circuit schematic for the smoke sensor circuit, all we need know is the code necessary to upload to the arduino for this smoke alarm cicrcuit to work.

The code that we need to upload is shown below.

/*Code for MQ-2 Smoke Sensor Circuit Built with an Arduino Board*/

const int sensorPin= 0;
const int buzzerPin= 13;
int smoke_level;

void setup() {
Serial.begin(115200); //sets the baud rate for data transfer in bits/second
pinMode(sensorPin, INPUT);//the smoke sensor will be an input to the arduino
pinMode(buzzerPin, OUTPUT);//the buzzer serves an output in the circuit
}

void loop() {
smoke_level= analogRead(sensorPin); //arduino reads the value from the smoke sensor
Serial.println(smoke_level);//prints just for debugging purposes, to see what values the sensor is picking up
if(smoke_level > 200){ //if smoke level is greater than 200, the buzzer will go off
digitalWrite(buzzerPin, HIGH);
}
else{
digitalWrite(buzzerPin, LOW);
}
}

The first block of code declares and initializes 3 variables. The sensorPin represents the smoke sensor. It is initialized to 0, because it will be connected to analog pin A0 of the arduino board. The next variable, buzzerPin, represents the pin that the anode of the buzzer will be connected to; it is initialized to 12 because it will be connected to digital pin D12 of the arduino board. And the variable, smoke_level, represents the amount of smoke that the smoke sensor picks up.

The next block of code defines the baud rate and the input and output of the circuit. The sensorPin, which is the smoke sensor pin, serves as the input of the circuit. This sensor is input into the arduino so that the arduino can read and process the value. The buzzerPin serves as the output. If the smoke level is above a certain threshold, the output of the circuit, the buzzer, will go off.

The next block of code uses the analogRead() function to read the value from the sensorPin (the smoke sensor). This will be a numerical value from 0 to 1023. 0 represents no smoke, while 1023 represents smoke at the absolute maximum highest level. So the variable, smoke_level, represents the smoke level that can range from 0 to 1023. We put a line to print this value just for debugging purposes, so that you can see what values are being returned from this function. In our code, we make it so that if the smoke level rises above 200, we will trigger the buzzer to sound by sending the digital pin D12 high. So 200 is our threshold level. If the smoke level is below this value, then the buzzer does not go off.

This last block of code was the loop() function. This is the part of code that repeats over and over in an infinite loop. This means that our code is always checking to see what the smoke_level is, so that it can know whether to trigger the buzzer or not.

And this is how a smoke sensor works with

# Introduction

In this lesson, we will show how to use the photoresistor with an Osoyoo UNO, we will monitor the output of a photoresistor, allow the Arduino to know how light or dark it is. When the light falls below a certain level, the Arduino turns on an LED.

# Preparations

## Hardware

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• Breadboard x 1
• Photoresistor x 1
• 10k ohm resistor x 1
• 200 ohm resistor x 8
• LED x 8
• M/M jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## Software

Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

Photocells are sensors that allow you to detect light. They are small, inexpensive, low-power, easy to use and don’t wear out. For that reason they often appear in toys, gadgets and appliances. They are often referred to as CdS cells (they are made of Cadmium-Sulfide), light-dependent resistors (LDR), and photoresistors.

Photocells are basically a resistor that changes its resistive value (in ohms Ω) depending on how much light is shining onto the squiggly face.When it is dark, the resistance of a photoresistor may be as high as a few MΩ. When it is light, however, the resistance of a photoresistor may be as low as a few hundred ohms. They are very low cost, easy to get in many sizes and specifications, but are very innacurate. Each photocell sensor will act a little differently than the other, even if they are from the same batch. The variations can be really large, 50% or higher! For this reason, they shouldn’t be used to try to determine precise light levels in lux or millicandela. Instead, you can expect to only be able to determine basic light changes.

This graph indicates approximately the resistance of the sensor at different light levels:

# Connection

You connect the components as shown in the diagram below. Connect the LED to pin 9 of the Arduino. The 200 ohm resistor is current limiting resistor. One lead of the photo resistor is connected to 5V, the other to one lead of the 10k ohm resistor. The other lead of the 10k ohm resistor is connected to ground. This forms a voltage divider, whose output is connected to pin A0 of the Arduino.

As the light impinging on the photoresistor gets stronger, the resistance decreases, and the voltage output of the divider increase. The reverse happens, when the impinging light gets weaker.

After above operations are completed, connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labelled PWR) should go on.

## Code Program

You can download the sketch from this link or copy below code to your Arduino IDE window:

int photocellPin = A0; // select the input pin for the photoresistor int ledPin = 9; // select the pin for the LED  int val = 0; // variable to store the value coming from the sensor  void setup() {Serial.begin(9600); //Set the baudrate to 9600,make sure it's same as your software settings pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // declare the ledPin as an OUTPUT  pinMode(photocellPin, INPUT); // declare the ledPin as an OUTPUT  } void loop() { val = analogRead(photocellPin); // read the value from the sensor Serial.println(val);      //The serial will print the light value if(val<=512) // the point at which the state of LEDs change  { digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH); // set LED on } else { digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); //set LED off } }

In this experiment, we will connect a photoresistor to an Arduino analog input and read the value with the analogRead() function. Depending on the value the Arduino reads, the program will then set pin 9 HIGH or LOW to turn on or turn off the LED night lights. The threshold value is 512. When the analog value read is less than 512, the Arduino will turn the LEDs on. When the analog value it reads is more than 512, the Arduino will turn the LEDs off.

## Compile and upload

Open the Arduino IDE and select corresponding board type and port type for your Arduino board.

After compile this sketch, simply click the “Upload” button in the environment. Wait a few seconds – you should see the RX and TX leds on the board flashing. If the upload is successful, the message “Done uploading.” will appear in the status bar.

# Running Result

If the room is lighted, the LEDs should not light. Try getting them to turn on it by covering the photoresistor with your hand. Remove your hand and observe that they turn off again.

In the same time, open the Serial Monitor and you will get the output data as below :

Note:

When you are using the Serial Monitor, please make sure the baudrate setting is same as your sketch definition.

# Extended experiment

In this experiment, we will use eight LEDs to indicate light intensity. The higher the light intensity is, the more the LED is lit. When the light intensity is high enough, all the LEDs will be lit. When there is no light, all the LEDs will go out.

Step 1: Build the circuit

Step 2: Program

You can get the sketch here,or copy below code to your Arduino IDE windows:

const int NbrLEDs = 8; const int ledPins[] = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}; const int photocellPin = A0; int sensorValue = 0; // value read from the sensor int ledLevel = 0; // sensor value converted into LED 'bars' void setup() { for (int led = 0; led < NbrLEDs; led++) { pinMode(ledPins[led], OUTPUT);// make all the LED pins outputs } } void loop() { sensorValue = analogRead(photocellPin); ledLevel = map(sensorValue, 300, 1023, 0, NbrLEDs); // map to the number of LEDs for (int led = 0; led < NbrLEDs; led++) { if (led < ledLevel ) { digitalWrite(ledPins[led], HIGH); // turn on pins less than the level } else { digitalWrite(ledPins[led],LOW); // turn off pins higher than // the level } } }

Step 3: Compile the code

Step 4: Upload the sketch to the Osoyoo Uno board

Now, if you shine the photoresistor with a certain light intensity, you will see several LEDs light up. If you increase the light intensity, you will see more LEDs light up. When you place it in dark environment, all the LEDs will go out.

## Content

1. Introduction
2. Preparations

3. About the 2-Channel Relay Module

4. Example
5. Connection
7. Program Running Result

# Introduction

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.

In this lesson, we will show you how the 2-Channel Relay Module works and how to use it with the Osoyoo Uno board to control high voltage devices.

# Preparations

## Hardware

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• 2-Channel Relay Module x 1
• Breadboard x 1
• Jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## Software

• Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

# About 2-Channel Relay Module

## Overview

This is a 5V 2-Channel Relay Module board, Be able to control various appliances, and other equipment with large current. It can be controlled directly by Microcontroller (Raspberry Pi, Arduino, 8051, AVR, PIC, DSP, ARM, ARM, MSP430, TTL logic). Very useful project for application like Micro-Controller based projects, Remote controller, Lamp on Off, and any circuits which required isolated high current and high voltage switching by applying any TTL or CMOS level voltage.

## Features

• High current relay, AC250V 10A, DC30V 10A
• 2 LEDs to indicate when relays are on
• Works with logic level signals from 3.3V or 5V devices
• Opto isolation circuitry
• PCB size: 50×45 mm

## Input

It has a 1×4 (2.54mm pitch) pin header for connecting power (5V and 0V), and for controlling the 2 relays. The pins are marked on the PCB:

• GND – Connect 0V to this pin.
• IN1 – Controls relay 1, active Low! Relay will turn on when this input goes below about 2.0V
• IN2 – Controls relay 2, active Low! Relay will turn on when this input goes below about 2.0V
• VCC – Connect 5V to this pin. Is used to power the opto couplers

There is a second 1×3 (2.54mm pitch) pin header for supplying the “relay side” of the board with 5V. At delivery, a jumper is present on this header selecting the 5V signal from the 1×4 pin header to power the relays. For default operation, don’t change this jumper!

The pins of the 1×3 pin header are marked on the PCB:

• JD-VCC – This is the 5V required for the relays. At delivery, a jumper is present on this and the adjacent (VCC) pin.
• VCC – This is the 5V VCC supplied on the 1×4 pin connector
• GND – Connected to 0V pin of 1×4 pin header

If opto isolation is required, an isolated 5V supply should be used. For normal operation, a jumper bewtween pins 1 and 2 selects the 5V signal from the 1×4 pin header. This means both the “input side”, and “relay side” use the same 5V supply, and there is no opto-isolation.

## Output

The 2 channel relay module could be considered like a series switches: 2 normally Open (NO), 2 normally closed (NC) and 2 common Pins (COM).

• COM- Common pin
• NC- Normally Closed, in which case NC is connected with COM when INT1 is set low and disconnected when INT1 is high
• NO- Normally Open, in which case NO is disconnected with COM1 when INT1 is set low and connected when INT1 is high

## How relay works?

The working of a relay can be better understood by explaining the following diagram given below.

There are 5 parts in every relay:

1. Electromagnet – It consists of an iron core wounded by coil of wires. When electricity is passed through, it becomes magnetic. Therefore, it is called electromagnet.

2. Armature – The movable magnetic strip is known as armature. When current flows through them, the coil is it energized thus producing a magnetic field which is used to make or break the normally open (N/O) or normally close (N/C) points. And the armature can be moved with direct current (DC) as well as alternating current (AC).

3. Spring – When no currents flow through the coil on the electromagnet, the spring pulls the armature away so the circuit cannot be completed.

4. Set of electrical contacts – There are two contact points:

．Normally open – connected when the relay is activated, and disconnected when it is inactive.

．Normally close – not connected when the relay is activated, and connected when it is inactive.

5. Molded frame – Relays are covered with plastic for protection.

Principle

The diagram shows an inner section diagram of a relay. An iron core is surrounded by a control coil. As shown, the power source is given to the electromagnet through a control switch and through contacts to the load. When current starts flowing through the control coil, the electromagnet starts energizing and thus intensifies the magnetic field. Thus the upper contact arm starts to be attracted to the lower fixed arm and thus closes the contacts causing a short circuit for the power to the load. On the other hand, if the relay was already de-energized when the contacts were closed, then the contact move oppositely and make an open circuit.

As soon as the coil current is off, the movable armature will be returned by a force back to its initial position. This force will be almost equal to half the strength of the magnetic force. This force is mainly provided by two factors. They are the spring and also gravity.

Relays are mainly made for two basic operations. One is low voltage application and the other is high voltage. For low voltage applications, more preference will be given to reduce the noise of the whole circuit. For high voltage applications, they are mainly designed to reduce a phenomenon called arcing.

## High Voltage Warning

Before we continue with this lesson, I will warn you here that we will use High Voltage which if incorrectly or improperly used could result in serious injuries or death. So be very caution of what you are doing.

# Examples

## Using the Arduino to Control a 2 Channel Relay

In this example, when a low level is supplied to signal terminal of the 2-channel relay, the LED on the relay will light up. Otherwise, it will turn off. If a periodic high and low level is supplied to the signal terminal, you can see the LED will cycle between on and off.

## Connection

Build the circuit as below digram:

## Code Program

After above operations are completed, connect the Arduino board to your computer using the USB cable. The green power LED (labelled PWR) should go on.Open the Arduino IDE and choose corresponding board type and port type for you project. Then load up the following sketch onto your Arduino.

//the relays connect to int IN1 = 2; int IN2 = 3; #define ON 0 #define OFF 1 void setup() { relay_init();//initialize the relay } void loop() { relay_SetStatus(ON, OFF);//turn on RELAY_1 delay(2000);//delay 2s relay_SetStatus(OFF, ON);//turn on RELAY_2 delay(2000);//delay 2s } void relay_init(void)//initialize the relay { //set all the relays OUTPUT pinMode(IN1, OUTPUT); pinMode(IN2, OUTPUT); relay_SetStatus(OFF, OFF); //turn off all the relay } //set the status of relays void relay_SetStatus( unsigned char status_1, unsigned char status_2) { digitalWrite(IN1, status_1); digitalWrite(IN2, status_2); }

## Running Result

A few seconds after the upload finishes, you should see the LED cycle between on and off.

# Introduction

We need Switch to control electronics or electrical appliances or some thing, Some time electrical switches will give a shock when we use electrical switches with wet hand and then touch to control electrical or electronic load is much interactive than ordinary switches, may be some projects needs touch switch.

In this lesson, we will show what is Digital Touch Sensor Module and how to use it with the Arduino board.

## HARDWARE

• Osoyoo UNO Board (Fully compatible with Arduino UNO rev.3) x 1
• Breadboard x 1
• Digital Touch Sensor Module x 1
• Jumpers
• USB Cable x 1
• PC x 1

## SOFTWARE

Arduino IDE (version 1.6.4+)

# About Digital Touch Sensor Module

## Overview:

• The module is based on a touch-sensing IC (TTP223B) capacitive touch switch module.
• In the normal state, the module output low, low power consumption; When a finger touches the corresponding position, the module output high, if not touched for 12 seconds, switch to low-power mode
• Jog type : the initial state is low , high touch , do not touch is low ( similar touch of a button feature )
• Module can be installed in such as surface plastic, glass of non-metallic materials. In addition to the thin paper ( non-metallic ) covering the surface of the module , as long as the correct location of the touch , you can make hidden in the walls, desktops and other parts of buttons

## Features:

• Low power consumption
• Power supply for 2 ~ 5.5V DC
• Operating Current(Vcc=3V):1.5 – 3.0μA
• Operating Current(VDD=3V):3.5 – 7.0μA
• Can replace the traditional touch of a button
• Four M2 screws positioning holes for easy installation
• Response Time: Low power mode:220ms;Quick mode :60ms
• Size: 8*6*0.5 cm

## Specification:

-Control Interface : A total of three pins (GND, VCC, SIG), GND to ground , VCC is the power supply , SIG digital signal output pin ;
-Power Indicator : Green LED, power on the right that is shiny ;
-Touch area : Similar to a fingerprint icon inside the area , you can touch the trigger finger .
-Positioning holes : 4 M2 screws positioning hole diameter is 2.2mm, the positioning of the module is easy to install , to achieve inter- module combination ;

## TTP223-IC

TTP223 is 1 Key Touch pad detector IC, and it is suitable to detect capacitive element variations. It consumes very low power and the operating voltage is only between 2.0V~5.5V. The response time max about 60mS at fast mode, 220mS at low power mode @VDD=3V. Sensitivity can adjust by the capacitance(0~50pF) outside.

### Applications:

• Water proofed electric products
• Button key replacement
• Consumer products

# Example

## Connect the Touch Sensor to Your Arduino

Connect Vcc pin of Sensor breakout board to Arduino’s +5V pin and GND to GND. Connect Signal (SIG) pin to Arduino Digital pin D2.

## Copy, Paste and Upload the Arduino Sketch

The sketch below provides an output to your serial monitor indicating whether or not the sensor is pressed.

### Result

After the uploader , if use finger or metal object touch the metal surface of the transducer , the red LED lights on the UNO will light. Open the Serial Monitor at baudrate 9600, and you will see something as below:

### KOOKYE Arduino学習キット中級版

KOOKYE Arduino学習キット中級版

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•  1* 1桁LEDデジタル表示管
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